CX Management Fundamentals Training Course

The GOLD STANDARD Customer Experience Management Course 

$1,897 AUD per person

Rated 4.9 out of 5
This CX Management Fundamentals course has an average rating of 4.9 out of 5 stars
Very good11%

The perfect preparation to gain the globally recognised CCXP credentials and/or expand your knowledge of leading CX practices and processes. 

With Customer Experience (CX for short) the hottest topic in business right now, there are significant opportunities for individuals armed with the latest skills to position themselves as a CX Management leader and drive change based on a customer-centric culture to deliver real, measurable results.

In this comprehensive CX Management Fundamentals 18 hour course (delivered via 4 x 4.5-hour live Zoom sessions), you’ll learn the five core customer experience management skills and strategies based on the Internationally recognised CCXP certification (Certified Customer Experience Professional) ensuring the skills you learn are aligned to globally recognised best-practice techniques.

And whilst this course serves as the perfect preparation for those thinking of sitting for the CCXP exam (we have a 100% pass mark for those who choose to pursue their CCXP Certification), you don’t need to apply for the CCXP exam – you’ll be able to use and apply these global best-practice CX skills with or without an exam.

With lots of great case studies, engaging course content that is constantly updated and fantastic customer reviews you can be assured this is the ideal path to learning global CX practices and processes.

CX Management training course

Why your trainer’s experience matters

In this Customer Experience Management Fundamentals course, you’ll learn directly from renowned global CX trainer Daniel Ord from OmniTouch International, one of only a handful of  CXPA Recognised Training Providers* in the world. As you’ll notice in the testimonials, Daniel is widely recognised as one of the most dynamic, knowledgeable and engaging CX trainers in the business!

Why is that important?  By choosing a CXPA Recognised Training Provider*, you are assured that the training you receive is from a provider recognised by CXPA as having the qualifications, skills, and commitment to providing quality Customer Experience training that will enhance your CX knowledge.

So whether it is to prepare for the CCXP exam, or wanting to learn how to develop a CX strategy and use CX to transform your business, this CX Management Fundamentals course ensures you are armed with the practical skills and knowledge on how to immediately start putting the customer at the centre of your business leading to better business outcomes.

*A global CXPA Recognised Training Provider has to go through a stringent qualification and testing process and it replaces the old Authorised Training Provider which is no longer supported or endorsed by the CXPA.

CXPA Recognised Trainer Provider

18 Hours of Facilitated Learning (Delivered over 4 x 4.5 Hour Online Workshops)

The truth is if you are serious about Customer Experience Management there is a lot to learn. Daniel Ord has been training CX courses since 2001 (one of the longest CX training providers in the world) and our Customer Experience Management course has been constantly refined to deliver an optimal training format that provides a perfect balance of theory, practice and most importantly, lots of real-life examples and stories to bring it all to life.

This course includes a comprehensive manual and we include lots of examples, case studies, frameworks and learnings that will continue to be a great reference point long after the course has been completed.

The public version of the Customer Experience Management course is delivered over four consecutive days with 4.5 hours each day and with private courses, there is greater scope to arrange the session times to suit your business.

The four different workshops consist of:

Workshop 1. Getting to the Heart of CX

CX isn’t Customer Service.  It’s not a better website or even a better buying experience.  It’s about transforming the Customer’s perception of everything you are into something meaningful, actionable and tangible.  CX Know-How helps make that happen.

Workshop 2. The CX Strategy & Voice of the Customer

Who are we?  What do we represent?  Do our people know who we are?  And who are our Customers? What do they expect?

Crafting a CX Strategy that operationalises & supports Organisational strategy and brand and considers the needs of Customers is where it begins.

We listen – we learn.  And that means a thorough understanding of listening tools & practices.  Quantitative surveys, Qualitative Research, tapping on multiple sources, making insights & results ‘real’ to people through Personas & Journey Maps.

Whether it’s ethnography, social media or a relationship survey, Voice of Customer is how we listen and learn.

Workshop 3. Experience Design & Metrics

When it comes time to innovate or create new experiences, human-centred design helps us come up with solutions we may have never thought of before.  It’s not sitting around a table brainstorming.

It’s a stakeholder inclusive approach used to solve problems for humans by including them each step of the way.

And Metrics matter.  Because they inform us of the success of our strategy and its implementation.  What objectives to choose, how to look at ROI, which experiences to measure, assembling data analytics that make sense and considering how to get action taken across the Organization.  These are the elements of Metrics, Measurement & ROI.

Workshop 4. Accountability, Governance & Culture

Should we have a Chief Customer Officer?  If so, what is their domain?  What are the characteristics for success?  And how can we tell if our Organisation takes Customer Experience seriously – that’s where Governance & Organisational Accountability come in.

It’s the sum of all the formal decisions made by our Organisation around Customer Experience.  And it can be seen.

Culture can also be seen.  It’s observable.  But what goes into crafting & building a Culture that includes Customers?  It’s both surprisingly easy and difficult at the same time.

Hiring, Socialisation, Cultural Beliefs, Rewards.  Do we treat Customers right because we’re paid to?  Or because it’s the right thing to do.  That’s where Culture comes in.

Looking for a shorter CX course?

If you’d like to fast-track your CX knowledge and awareness we also have a 4-hour Introduction to CX training course.

Learn more »

Learn more about the CCXP and this course

CEO of CX SKills Justin Tippett interviews the facilitator of the Customer Experience Management Fundamentals course Daniel Ord covering many of the questions people want to know about the CCXP and the overall course.

Closed Captions/subtitles are available for this video – just click the option at the bottom of the video.

Who should do this course?

Customer Experience Training Course for Managers Australia

As Customer Experience is still an emerging discipline for most businesses, the course will benefit any role that is looking to learn how to use Customer Experience as the vehicle to deliver better business outcomes.

Typical roles this course may be suitable for include:

  • General Managers & Business owners looking to expand their CX skillset and learn how the various components of CX and how collectively they can be used to transform any business.
  • Customer Experience (CX) Managers working towards obtaining the internationally recognised CXPA certification and preparing to sit for the CCXP exam.
  • Customer Experience consultants and practitioners looking to validate their mastery and learn some new skills.
  • Customer Service/Call Centre Managers wanting to broaden their skillset beyond the call centre.
  • Marketing Managers wanting to learn more about how they can influence the customer journey.

The skills you learn are applicable globally – we continually have students join us from all over the world including Australia, Singapore, Hong Kong, UK, USA, Germany, France and more!

Zoom Zoom!

The Customer Experience Management Fundamentals/CCXP Exam Preparation course is delivered online via 4 x 4.5-hour workshops with Daniel conducting each session live from his base in Germany (even though he’s actually American and lived in Singapore for 20 years – it’s a long story!).

Recent participants who have completed the online course have consistently provided great feedback (read the testimonials!) with the ability to have a chance to pause in-between sessions and stay across any urgent work/life matters as well as allowing some of the content to be ‘digested’ a significant advantage over attending this course onsite.

We’ve also had a much more diverse group of attendees than would be possible in person with course participants joining us from all over the world including the UK, USA, Germany, Hungary, Malaysia, Singapore, New Zealand, Hong Kong and, of course, Australia which has added enormous value to the sessions for all participants (as there is a lot of sharing).

Customer Experience Online Training Course

This course is the perfect segue to gaining your internationally recognised

Certified Customer Experience Professional (CCXP) credentials. 

CCXP Exam preparation course by the CXPA

The FIVE core CCXP competencies you’ll learn

Updated for 2022! This Customer Experience Management Fundamentals course is designed to equip you with skills in the following five core Certified Customer Experience Professional competencies (that are aligned to the CCXP entrance exam) administered by the CXPA (note that in late 2021 the CXPA refined their 6 competencies into 5).

1: Customer Experience Strategy

The CX strategy defines and describes your intended customer experience, how it links to your overall objectives and how it aligns to your brand values and attributes.

2: Culture and Accountability 

Learn the building blocks of establishing a customer-centric culture across your business.

3: Customer Insights and Understanding

Customer understanding is the thing that replaces everyone’s best guess about customers with real actionable insights using qualitative and quantitative research. And ensuring your organisation acts on Customer Insights.

4: Design, Implementation & Innovation

Learn how to create new experiences or modify existing experiences that will help Stakeholders achieve their objectives.

5: Metrics, Measurement and ROI

Learn how to choose the right CX Metrics and how to do the analysis and get the results out there including data architecture, Return on Investment and Principles of Customer Valuation.

Bonus Content!

In addition to the five modules above, our course also includes two additional focus areas that help CX folks succeed:

  • Understanding Customer Experience
  • Essential Customer Research Know-How

We find that these 2 additional modules are not only popular but they’ll also help deepen your CX understanding.

What you’ll learn

Over the 4 workshops in the CX Management course you’ll learn:

  • Provide a strategic understanding of each of the five core customer experience competencies (as detailed above).
  • Share examples, case studies and stories around each competency.
  • Provide practice quizzes for each competency domain.
  • Document how the competencies interrelate with each other.
  • Understand how to establish the business case for CX.
  • Address the roles & practices around Personas, Journey Maps, VOC & VOE programs.
  • Build out exercises that allow participants to apply concepts to real-world scenarios.
  • Provide a forum for interaction, sharing and dialogue.

We also provide a comprehensive amount of follow up information post the course so you’ll have a great resource library of CX material to continue to learn from.

Customer Experience Management Course learnings

Gain the globally recognised CCXP Certification  

This course is the perfect prerequisite to equip yourself with the industry-leading certification for Customer Experience professionals known as the CCXP accreditation (Certified Customer Experience Professional that is administered by the Customer Experience Professionals Association (CXPA)

Participants who complete this course are not required to take the CCXP Exam however should you decide to pursue the accreditation, this course is considered the ideal CCXP exam preparation course as it uses the same style and format to give you the best chance of success. In fact, everyone who has completed this course and gone on to sit for the exam has passed!

The Certified Customer Experience Professional credential – ‘CCXP’ proves your mastery of the 5 Customer Experience competencies identified by the CXPA as critical for CX professionals.

There is a cost to sit the exam and you will be required to do some additional study to finalise your preparation for the exam (mostly consisting of some additional reading) – you can find out more about this on the CCXP website >

CCXP Exam preparation course by the CXPA

Exclusive bonus if you are preparing to sit for the CCXP Exam!

You don’t get to become a Recognised Training Provider without having an absolute commitment to helping people on their Customer Experience journey.

Daniel Ord includes a free private one-hour CCXP Exam coaching preparation session for anyone who has completed the course and then decides to go forward and sit for the formal CCXP exam.

This is purely a coaching session designed to help you pass the exam – it’s not a sales pitch, an exploratory consulting session to ‘learn more about your business’, a career counselling session and so on. It’s simply designed to help you prepare as best you can to sit the exam (there is cost each time you sit for the exam) so you can ask questions, go over any items you’re unsure of, test your knowledge etc.

It’s been a popular choice for a reason – Daniel has a 100% exam pass rate from everyone who has completed the course and had their free 60-minute CCXP Exam Coaching session!

About your trainer, Daniel Ord

The trainer for the Customer Experience Management course is Daniel Ord from OmniTouch International recognised as one of the leading customer experience and contact centre trainers in the world.

Daniel has trained over 50,000 participants across over 40 countries and is regularly featured in leading customer management publications and he has been a regular visitor to Australia for over 20 years.

Credentials-wise, Dan is a Certified Customer Experience Professional (CCXP), one of only a handful of recognised CXPA trainers in the world, an International Customer Management Institute (ICMI) Certified Associate, a Call Centre Industry Advisory Council Training Partner (CIAC), Net Promoter Certified and Daniel was the first to bring professional management level Contact Centre certification to Asia back in the early 00s (he was based in Singapore for 20 years).

Global Customer Experience training expert Daniel Ord

Daniel is consistently regarded as the best trainer in the industry with his incredible subject matter expertise, excellent storytelling with real-world examples, a great sense of humour and a clear passion for the industry and helping people excel.

So it’s not surprising to note that despite all the numerous industry accolades and recognition, it’s the Customer Testimonials Daniel is most proud of and you can read a selection of his recent testimonials below.

Recent Customer Testimonials for this course

The reason this course is considered the Gold Standard is the wealth of information provided (it’s constantly updated) and for the passion and experience, Daniel Ord (supported by Marcus von Kloeden who is also a certified CCXP), brings to every training course. Below are the most recent customer testimonials for this course.

A great course to comprehend the fundamentals of CX- and so much more!

Rated 5 out of 5
12 May 2022
Review of CX Management Fundamentals (May 2022 class)

I thoroughly enjoyed the CX Management Fundamentals course facilitated by Daniel Ord. The four modules were content rich, with so many key takeaways and lightbulb moments. I am looking forward to implementing all of my new knowledge.

Avatar for Isabelle Wolfensberger
Isabelle Wolfensberger
Head of Customer Experience
The Hatchery

Most engaging course!

Rated 5 out of 5
11 May 2022
Review of CX Management Fundamentals (May 2022 class)

I’d be happy to recommend Daniel’s course to anyone in my organisation, especially those whose core work is about improving outcomes for customers and optimising their experiences. I love all the frameworks and useful sets of tools that I’ve picked up in the course, and can’t wait to integrate them into the current Design Thinking practices.

Avatar for Alexis Wang
Alexis Wang
Senior Service Designer
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

Comprehensive overview of CX competencies, exceptional delivery

Rated 5 out of 5
7 May 2022
Review of CX Management Fundamentals (May 2022 class)

A well designed course covering the 5 CX competencies, presented with clarity and lots of useful tips and examples. I loved it how Daniel Ord made you feel at ease from the start, delivered the course in a highly engaging and conversational style. You’ll come away with a solid foundation, whether you are new to CX or are preparing for the practisers exam.

Avatar for Diana van nispen
Diana van nispen
Head of Customer Value

Excellent content, Excellent delivery, Excellent Instructor

Rated 5 out of 5
17 February 2022

I’ve participated in several courses with CX Skills now, specifically with Daniel Ord as the instructor. Daniel has a wealth of knowledge around customer experience and his history in customer service is top notch. CX Skills has become my go to for my team’s customer service and customer experience development. Look forward to next one.

Avatar for Todd Johnson
Todd Johnson
Manager, Service Centre
Department of Transport & Main Roads

More Customer Testimonials 

“Daniel is a demonstrated expert and champion of CX. He demonstrates his passion for excellence with such humility and empathy and does so much to help people grow in this area. He’s an amazing facilitator and has a unique way of connecting the dots in a way that allows people from diverse background to understand the inner workings. It’s been a privilege to know him.” 

“Daniel brings intelligence, good humour, creativity and financial discipline to everything he addresses. 

“Love the way it was structured with perfect examples & stories to highlight/define each competency”

“Many great moments of insights and perspectives”

“Daniel was knowledgeable, fun and super engaging and I didn’t have one single moment of boredom throughout the course”

“Daniel makes it interesting with his experience and knowledge, a great investment!”

“Very fulfilling and helpful knowledge to aid my understanding on how to survey customers”

“The journey mapping is extremely useful as it allows me to have a more systematic way of looking at things from a customer perspective”

“Perfect pace – not too fast and totally focussed on the learner’s experience”

Customer Experience Training Course

As a global CXPA Recognised Trainer Provider, if you decide to sit for the exam we will also supply you with an exclusive 15% off coupon voucher to join the CXPA and the exam fee saving you over $100 USD!

About CX Skills

CX Skills is a specialist training business that only delivers contact centre, customer experience, customer service and leadership related courses facilitated exclusively by industry professionals.  We’re one of the founding members of the Australian Customer Experience Professionals Association (ACXPA) and we are committed to helping Australia to be recognised as global leaders in Customer Experience.

We’ve trained thousands of staff across a diverse range of businesses and we’re proud of the amazing customer testimonials we’ve received directly and on Google reviews so you can rest assured your training is in good hands.

CX Skills CX Management training course
Great company to work with. Excellent training course with trainers that really bring the content to life!
Joyi Lu
Joyi Lu
05:53 22 Jun 22
Fantastic virtual environment. Daniel who hosted our course was well articulated and engaging. I thoroughly enjoyed participating in this CX course and feel ready to apply the skills I gained.
07:00 03 Jun 22
I've participated in several courses with CX Skills now, specifically with Daniel Ord as the instructor. Daniel has a wealth of knowledge around customer experience and his history in customer service is top notch. CX Skills has become my go to for my teams customer service and customer experience development.
Todd Johnson
Todd Johnson
02:05 16 Feb 22
Training with CX Skills is always engaging and worth every cent. The team are helpful and the lessons are practical and easy to translate into the workplace.
Sheree Laursen
Sheree Laursen
21:15 08 Dec 21
Attended the Introduction to Contact Centre Management course – found it extremely informative and left with a much better understanding of the world I'm about to step into! The course was well structured and Justin was a great teacher. His wealth of knowledge (and passion) absolutely shone through. Am keen to learn more!
Keira Smith
Keira Smith
02:55 29 Nov 21
I did the management of contact centres four day workshop, it was fantastic! The facilitator was really engaging and explained everything from WFM to forecasting in a easy to understand manner. Highly recommend to anyone working in a contact centre environment!
Jamie Leonard
Jamie Leonard
05:13 15 Oct 21
I had a fantastic learning experience with the half day Journey Mapping course. Shane was our trainer and explained things thoroughly, used great practical examples and helped through the exercise when needed. He was very knowledgeable and engaging. The group size was not too big so everyone was able to contribute online. I feel confident to 'give a journey map a go' now, thank you. Helen
GVW Intranet
GVW Intranet
04:48 15 Oct 21
The Introduction to Contact Centre Management is an excellent course for those looking to understand contact centres from a helicopter view and benchmark their operations. From the fundamental pillars to critical KPIs and performance metrics that underpin almost every contact centre globally, Justin is personable and professional and speaks with authority on a topic he knows intimately.
Jim Rodd
Jim Rodd
00:00 14 Sep 21
Justin offers such a wealth of knowledge and skills that can be applied to leaders in any business. Thank you Justin!
Sam Petroulias
Sam Petroulias
04:45 16 Jul 21
We have done a few training courses now through Justin and the CX Group.In these sessions the facilitator has been Dan Ord and Dans knowledge of the Contact Centre world is second to none. This was great for us as we attended as a team to ensure that the training that we received was able to be applied across my entire management team and also allowed me to drive the right outcomes based on Dan, Marcus and Justins advice and guidance.The best thing about this is that this was not one of those courses that you attend and then nothing more is said or done with this. . . Dan/Justin offer their email address so if you come up with additional questions later that you want guidance on you can ask and they are more than willing to assist.Dan, Marcus and Justin thanks for facilitating this training and we will sure be intouch for other training courses that we would like to run through the CX Group.Bec Goss
Rebecca Goss
Rebecca Goss
21:20 26 Apr 21
This course is absolutely fundamental to anyone dealing with customer experience, the customer journey and also customer service departments. The course is packed with real life examples illustrating the 6 pillars of customer experience! Dan shares all his knowledge and expertise freely and with great love and enthusiasm for the subject matter!
Marianne Rutz
Marianne Rutz
11:06 26 Apr 21
The CX Management Fundamentals course was exceptional, a balanced blend of best in-class examples and theory . Daniel was the utmost professional, sharing his wealth of knowledge in customer experience and contact centre management. Content was relevant and covered an array of business examples. A course that exemplifies two-way participation (no death by PowerPoint). The diverse group of attendees had the opportunity to share their experiences and knowledge, which was priceless. I highly recommend this course for anyone in the customer experience realm, even beginners like me.
Rachael Lowe
Rachael Lowe
22:30 25 Apr 21
I learnt a lot about CX and the course gave me clarity on the 6 main competencies. The training was fun, enjoyable, I can recommend to anyone who is passionate about the "Customer" subject. Daniel is very knowledgeable and experienced, he used real life business examples to understand both the strategic and tactical elements of CX. He also involved us which generated even more credibility.
Eva P
Eva P
16:53 25 Apr 21
I could not recommend this Company highly enough, I have now done two courses with the Fantastic Dan & Marcus and have taken so much away. I want to thank everybody involved with CX Skills.
Rory Lynch
Rory Lynch
04:45 29 Mar 21
Game-changing training and insight. Highly recommend CX Skills training program.
Lee Siefken
Lee Siefken
22:57 15 Mar 21
An absolutely fun and engaging learning session presented by Daniel. Would definitely recommend.
Vanessa Gralton
Vanessa Gralton
22:17 15 Mar 21
Another great course put together by Justin presented by their partners at Omnitouch, Daniel and Marcus.The "How to Design a Quality Assurance Program for Contact Centres" was extremely fitting for our organisation as we transition to a new telephony system.The course was not one of those courses where they give you the answer and a few templates sending you on your way. Daniel and Marcus take you through why an appropriate framework should take into consideration the Organisations, Mission Statement, Values and Customer Service Charter.As the session was run via Zoom, it enabled and encouraged networking opportunities not only across Australia but also with International attendees. This was a fantastic benefit as it allowed us to draw on each others lived experiences.I really encourage you all to check out the courses and information that CX Skills has to offer as they are the best place to not only continue but to also start your learning and development!
Adrian Powell
Adrian Powell
11:34 15 Mar 21
Justin and the team at CX Skills have gone over and above the call of duty to deliver great Customer Service training to our entire Service Centre team. The training has been high quality, delivered remotely, and Justin has been extremely flexible with necessary changes to attendees due to operational requirements. I highly recommend CX Skills to assist with your training needs.
Monica Malgarini
Monica Malgarini
06:29 03 Mar 21
The training provided manages to take complex sales strategies and make them easy to understand and implicate in a sales call. It provides a structure that isn’t stifled by wordy scripts and pitches, and guides consultants towards a successful outcome for both the customer and consultant.This training took efficient, tried and tested sales concepts and expand on them to not only generate higher conversion, but a more positive customer experience.Aside from the training, which was amazing, Simon - the trainer - was a pleasure to work with. He was attentive and showed a real passion and desire to enhance the trainee’s sales expertise.I would recommend CX Group to anyone who will listen!
Chris Remnant
Chris Remnant
03:58 25 Feb 21
A very well structured training course. The trainer was very knowledgeable and a very good presenter.
Elena Prenner
Elena Prenner
22:06 03 Feb 21
I recently attended the Contact Centre Management Fundamentals course and found it extremely useful and relevant. Daniel was extremely knowledgeable on all topics and handled questions with ease. He was a great trainer and i found the session had a great mix to suit all learning styles. I have taken so much from this course, the networking opportunities as well as the CX website and associated resources. I highly recommend attending if you are looking to better understand contact centre management regardless of what level you work at.
Nicole Field
Nicole Field
05:25 02 Feb 21
Thank you team-It has certainly changed the whole perspective on how I used to see and handle the issues not just at the workplace but also in day to day life. Very practical and informative course content delivered in a very professional way. I truely recomend everyone out there to use this platform.
Badri Pokhrel
Badri Pokhrel
05:52 21 Jan 21
Justin created a great call centre fundamentals program for our organisation, based on the skill gaps needed filling. Although it was at the height of the Melbourne lockdown the session was still interactive, interesting and achieved the desired result.
Sarsha S
Sarsha S
23:39 22 Dec 20
Really enjoyed course on handling difficult customers. I came away with a number of tools that I can use not only with customers, but also day to day life.
Justin from CX responded promptly to my training enquiry. He heard what we wanted and we discussed best way to present this during Melbourne Lockdown. He conducted the introduction to contact centre leadership remotely with a small group. He weaved his contact centre experience with humour and activities that were appropriate and engaging. At the end each person agreed that they learnt lots and were going to apply at least one thing back in their role. I would highly recommend CX and Justin for training and support.
Kaylee Gerbes
Kaylee Gerbes
23:43 21 Sep 20

Pricing and Payment Options

When you purchase the Customer Experience Management Fundamentals Course for $1,897 AUD ex GST you receive:

  • 18 hours of live facilitated training with Daniel Ord, one of only a handful of Recognised Training Providers in the world accredited by the CXPA.
  • An optional one-hour private Exam Preparation Coaching Session with Daniel if you are going to sit for the CCXP exam.
  • A 15% discount coupon voucher to join the CXPA and the exam fee saving you over $100 USD
  • A comprehensive workbook with examples, templates etc
  • A great resource library sent post-course completion
  • A hard copy signed certificate of completion
CX Training Course and CCXP exam preparation

Discounts are available if you book for more than one person in the same transaction (discounts will be applied automatically on checkout and no other discounts apply):

  • Save 15%  if booking for two or more people in the same transaction.
  • Save 20%  if booking for three or more people in the same transaction.

Tickets can be purchased using a credit card or you can request an invoice – select your preferred option on checkout.

Got questions about this course?  Contact us on +61 3 9008 7287 between 8:30 am to 5:30 pm AEST/AEDT Monday to Friday or send us a message anytime >

Purchase tickets now

You can purchase tickets to the upcoming public Customer Experience Management Courses below – just click on the date to learn more about the course and purchase a ticket.